Hypotension is also called as low blood pressure. It is a serious health issue ignored by most of the people. In general hypotension is considered as a problem relating to rate, pump or volume of blood flow. Rate problems are associated with bradycardia or tachycardia that can cause decrease in blood pressure.
There are problems with the pumping of heart is mainly associated with the overall heart functions. The problems related to overall heart function or pumping of heart is related to the diseases like myocardial infarction or cardiogenic shock. Myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shocks generally results in low blood pressure. Hypothermia or cardiac depressant medication can also lead to low blood pressure by effecting the pumping of heart.
The volume related heart problems are very common which can be caused due to conditions like hypovalaemic shock, severe dehydration, haemorrhage, septic shock, anaphylaxis and neurogenic shock. These above conditions can also lead to low blood pressure.
Low blood pressure or hypotension should be evaluated and treated urgently. Assessment of low blood pressure should include recheck of the pressure and close monitoring.
Orthostatic hypotension- It is also called as postural hypotension. It is defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure of at least 20 mm Hg or at least 10 mm Hg diastolic within 3 minutes of the patient standing. If orthostatic hypotension is encountered then the client is at the risk of falls and should be supervised with the ambulation.
To test for orthostatic hypotension, take the blood pressure whilst the patient is supine and at rest and then make the patient stand. The patient must be able to stand for 3 minutes before taking the blood pressure again. If the measurement meets the criteria stated previously then orthostatic hypotension is evident. If the result is equivocal then record and request for a formal assessment